2021年5月6日 星期四

Europe Proposes Strict Regulation of Artificial Intelligence 防AI侵人權 歐盟帶頭嚴管

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2021/05/07 第331期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Europe Proposes Strict Regulation of Artificial Intelligence 防AI侵人權 歐盟帶頭嚴管
Fearing the Worst, Whether War or Peace Lies Ahead 美軍將撤 阿富汗婦女陷恐懼深淵
Europe Proposes Strict Regulation of Artificial Intelligence 防AI侵人權 歐盟帶頭嚴管
文/Adam Satariano

防AI侵人權 歐盟帶頭嚴管

The European Union unveiled strict regulations on April 21 to govern the use of artificial intelligence, a first-of-its-kind policy that outlines how companies and governments can use a technology seen as one of the most significant, but ethically fraught, scientific breakthroughs in recent memory.


The draft rules would set limits around the use of artificial intelligence in a range of activities, from self-driving cars to hiring decisions, bank lending, school enrollment selections and the scoring of exams. It would also cover the use of artificial intelligence by law enforcement and court systems — areas considered "high risk" because they could threaten people's safety or fundamental rights.


Some uses would be banned altogether, including live facial recognition in public spaces, though there would be several exemptions for national security and other purposes.


The 108-page policy is an attempt to regulate an emerging technology before it becomes mainstream. The rules have far-reaching implications for major technology companies including Amazon, Google, Facebook and Microsoft that have poured resources into developing artificial intelligence, but also scores of other companies that use the software to develop medicine, underwrite insurance policies, and judge credit worthiness. Governments have used versions of the technology in criminal justice and allocating public services like income support.


Companies that violate the new regulations, which could take several years to move through the European Union policymaking process, could face fines of up to 6% of global sales.


"On artificial intelligence, trust is a must, not a nice to have," Margrethe Vestager, the European Commission executive vice president who oversees digital policy for the 27-nation bloc, said in a statement. "With these landmark rules, the EU is spearheading the development of new global norms to make sure AI can be trusted."


The European Union regulations would require companies providing artificial intelligence in high-risk areas to provide regulators with proof of its safety, including risk assessments and documentation explaining how the technology is making decisions. The companies must also guarantee human oversight in how the systems are created and used.


For the past decade, the European Union has been the world's most aggressive watchdog of the technology industry, with its policies often used as blueprints by other nations.


Fearing the Worst, Whether War or Peace Lies Ahead 美軍將撤 阿富汗婦女陷恐懼深淵
文/Thomas Gibbons-Neff, Fatima

美軍將撤 阿富汗婦女陷恐懼深淵

Farzana Ahmadi watched as a neighbor in her village in northern Afghanistan was flogged by Taliban fighters last month. The crime: Her face was uncovered.


"Every woman should cover their eyes," Ahmadi recalled one Taliban member saying.


People silently watched as the beating dragged on.


Fear — even more potent than in years past — is gripping Afghans now that U.S. and NATO forces will depart the country in the coming months. They will leave behind a publicly triumphant Taliban, who many expect will seize more territory and reinstitute many of the same oppressive rules they enforced under their regime in the 1990s.


The New York Times spoke to many Afghan women — members of civil society, politicians, journalists and others — about what comes next in their country, and they all said the same thing: Whatever happens will not bode well for them.


Whether the Taliban take back power by force or through a political agreement with the Afghan government, their influence will almost inevitably grow. In a country in which an end to nearly 40 years of conflict is nowhere in sight, many Afghans talk of an approaching civil war.


"All the time, women are the victims of men's wars," said Raihana Azad, a member of Afghanistan's Parliament. "But they will be the victims of their peace, too."


When the Taliban governed Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001, it barred women and girls from taking most jobs or going to school, and practically made them prisoners in their own homes.


After the U.S. invasion to topple the Taliban and defeat al-Qaida in the wake of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the Western rallying cry for bringing women's rights to the already war-torn country seemed to many a noble undertaking.


Over two decades, the United States spent more than $780 million to promote women's rights in Afghanistan. The result is a generation who came of age in a period of hope for women's equality.


Although progress has been uneven, girls and women now make up about 40% of students. They have joined the military and police, held political office, become internationally recognized singers, competed in the Olympics and on robotics teams, climbed mountains and more — all things that were nearly impossible at the turn of the century.


Across the country, schools are now being forced to contemplate whether they will be able to stay open.


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